Plenary Lectures Abstracts
Trust Communities – Social Mechanisms for Technical Systems
Trust, fairness, reputation, forgiveness but also laws and sanctions are indispensible ingredients of human societies. Despite Dawkins’ “The Selfish Gene”, we are primarily social and cooperative animals, and this is for a good reason: Cooperative societies are more successful than collections of selfish agents, and social behavior pays off not only for the group as a whole but also for the individuals.
Technical systems resemble more and more our human societies: They are complex, consist of semi-autonomous subsystems (or “agents”), which are largely unknown and self-interested, and interact with each other. These systems are highly dynamic and open, hence impossible to rigidly define at design time and difficult to control at runtime. We will increasingly rely on self-organization mechanisms to make them adaptive and robust against changing requirements and environment. Therefore it is an obvious approach to transfer and utilize social mechanisms into technical systems.
The lecture discusses the prisoners’ dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons to motivate the introduction of trust into technical systems. It shows how different forms of self-organized implicit and explicit Trust Communities (iTCs and eTCs) can improve the robustness of a multi-agent organization. An open Grid Computing system serves as an example.
While iTCs and eTCs greatly improve the system robustness in the presence of egoistic agent attacks there are certain global situations like a trust-breakdown (so-called Negative Emergent Behavior NEB), which require a more massive interference by higher-level authorities. The lecture will explain how norms and sanctions can help to recover from NEB states.
In an outlook we will compare the social mechanisms introduced so far with Elinor Ostrom’s (Nobel laureate in Economic Sciences 2009) rules for Enduring Institutions and discuss their applicability to future technical systems.
Christian Müller-Schloer studied EE at the Technical University of Munich and received the Diploma degree in 1975, the Ph. D. in semiconductor physics in 1977. In the same year he joined Siemens Corporate Technology where he worked in a variety of research fields, among them CAD for communication systems, cryptography, simulation accelerators and RISC architectures.
From 1980 until 1982 he was a member of the Siemens research labs in Princeton, NJ, U.S.A. In 1991 he was appointed full professor of computer architecture and operating systems at the University of Hannover. His institute, later renamed to Institute of Systems Engineering – System and Computer Architecture, engaged in systems level research such as system design and simulation, embedded systems, virtual prototyping, educational technology and, since 2001, adaptive and self-organizing systems.
He is one of the founders of the German Organic Computing Initiative, which was launched in 2003 with support of GI and itg, the two key professional societies for computer science in Germany. In 2005 he co-initiated the Special Priority Programme on Organic Computing of the German Research Foundation (DFG).
He is author of more than 200 papers and 14 books.
Hospital 2090: Warm Atmosphere, Economy and Human and Technological Efficiency
The last 50 years have been characterized by an outstanding growth in population and quality of life. In fact, we have more than doubled in number - increasing from 3 billion inhabitants to over 7 billion inhabitants - we have increased our life expectancy by an average of 40 years - from 50 to 90 years old - and recent studies now reveal that people born after the year 2000 are expected to live over 100 years.
These facts would have been impossible without technology. This is the main driver of our project, the so-called Hospital 2090, that aims to express the advantages and the need to bring and incorporate technology to health. The correct usage of technology in health requires mainly the interaction of all levels of knowledge and financial support within the university campus.
This presentation aims to increase our awareness of our role in health and the need to build a solid educational model that will bring the youth closer to technology and health.Hospital 2090 is not only a new medical project but also aims to integrate technology in our lives.
Although technology allows long distance communications, safer surgeries, home consultations, peer-to-peer networking, the overall results in improving health go beyond these already recognized benefits. It will allow a constant synchrony with medical advances all around the world by means of the internet of things; it will permit to deal with large sets of data (knowledge) that is continually being updated and it will provide the tools to keep on searching into bionic implants, discovery that brought technology and health closer than ever before.
Domotic and communication technology in medicine will at least double our efficiency: by being closer to our patients and by allowing a continuous flow of information and knowledge within and between geographical borders. As a consequence, technology provides for a more efficient and reliable service that prompts profitability in the field of health.
Manuel Maynar holds an MD by the University of Zaragoza (1973) and PhD by he same University after additional training on interventional radiology and on the aortic trunk in the Univ. of Barcelona. He completed his education as a medical fellow in Zurich, Miami and Minneapolis, specially with Prof. Grúntzig and the pioneers of endovascular surgery in 1980.
He performed the first endovascular peripheral angioplastics and the first endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurism in Spain (1994). In 1988 also performed the first live transmission surgery from the "angio suite" to a Congress, broadcasted by satellite to all Latin America.
Maynar has been Prof. of the Louisiana State University, New Orleans. first in 1990; later, from 1994 to 1997 and since 2000 a gratis faculty. Associate Professor in Portland Oregon University in 1991. Since 1997 is full Professor of the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and director of other Spanish Centers (Head of the Dept. of MInimally Invasive Surgery in Hospiten Rambla and Head of the Dept. of the Minimlly Invasive Surgery Center, Experimental Animal Lab, Caceres). He is director of the Project MOTIVA to promote education and use of new technologies in Minimally Invasive and Reconstructive Surgery, funded by the Canarian Agency for Research, Innovation and Information Society.
He is member of different International Societies and reviewing journals. Elected Distingued Fellow and Meeting Chairman of the CIRSE Congress hold in 2004 in Barcelona, Spain. He has authored over 100 indexed papers and 11 books, and still conducts international training programs for specialists in endovascular, endoluminal and interventional radiology. His present interests are in the area of technology and medicine, focoussed on the use of simulators and innovating in minimally invasive surgery, mostly to improve training and education of present and future physicians in Minimally invasive Techniques.
The surprising applicability of abstract discrete structures- a signal processing view.
The usefulness (and necessity) of mathematics in engineering becomes evident just by browsing a high-school physics book. Almost every branch of mathematics have some engineering applications, sometimes, via advanced theories in physics and chemistry. Traditional engineering mathematics was mainly ``continuous'' but the emergence of digital systems discrete mathematics into engineering curricula. However, especially a research engineer must still have solid working knowledge of mathematical analysis and probability theory.
A good example of a discipline needing a strong background in mathematics is signal processing. We deal with (natural) information gathered by sensors and in the modeling is performed using e.g. real and complex functions and random processes. The data is processed digitally and designing such systems requires almost all available tools in discrete mathematics -- Finite Groups, Rings, Fields and Linear Spaces; Boolean Algebras; Trees and Graphs; Combinatorics; Automata and Formal Languages and so on.
In this talk, I will describe some of the topics that I have studied during the years I have been working on signal processing problems. With each topic, I look at the engineering problem in question, and discuss the mathematical structures and theories we use to study the problem. There is usually a ``natural or obvious'' mathematical discipline to apply but, interestingly, interpreting the problem within a seemingly unrelated theory may give a better solution. It is good to have many interpretations because typically, the practical solution is a hybrid method to balance cost, complexity, and efficiency.
Jaakko Astola received his PhD degree from University of Turku, 1978. He has been working in signal processing and related fields for over 30 years. He is member of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, The Finnish Academy of Technology, and Academia Europaea. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, SPIE and EURASIP. He has made contributions to image processing image coding and image analysis. The concept of Vector Median Filter, developed by him, is widely referenced. He has also studied image processing methods that are based on local approximation and statistical decision rules, genomic signal processing, e.g. microarray quality control, and information theoretic methods in the analysis of biological signals. He has also worked on algebraic coding theory, logic design and representation of discrete functions.
Overall, Dr. Astola has co-authored several books, published numerous articles in archive journals as well as supervised 40 of doctoral theses.